|Beginnings of the Mission|
|Mission San Antonio de Padua was the third Mission to be founded. Father Junipero Serra claimed the site on July 14, 1771 and dedicated the Mission to Saint Anthony of Padua. Saint Anthony was born in 1195 in Lisbon, Spain and is the patron Saint of the poor.|
|Location and Geography|
|The site that Father Serra chose didnt have enough water to sustain the Mission. The Mission was eventually moved to another site in the Valley of the Oaks near San Miguel Creek.|
|The Native Americans|
|The main tribe in the area around Mission San Antonio was the Salinan. They were named the Salinan by the Spanish, we dont know what name they gave themselves. There were about 20 villages near the Mission. Like most of the other tribes in California, the Salinan were nomadic. That means that they lived in one area for a time and would move their entire community to follow herds for food or when too much garbage piled up they would burn down the old ones and find another site to build their homes. Men hunted and fished to provide food while the women gathered acorns, wild herbs, roots, and berries to help feed their families. Their religion, though, was different than most in California. Their religion was similar to the Catholicism that the Mission Fathers wanted them to convert to, it made it easier for the Fathers to convince the Natives to follow the Catholic religion.
Mission records show that by 1774 there were 178 neophytes living at the mission.
|Architecture and Layout|
|The Fathers followed a regular plan for creating the layout of the mission buildings. Right after blessing the site the Fathers and the soldiers would start building a small building to hold the religious ceremonies, called a Mass. They would encourage local Natives to help them. Many often did; they were fascinated by the tools and gifts that the Fathers had brought with them. The first buildings would be built of wood poles and brush. Eventually the buildings would be replaced by larger adobe brick or stone buildings. After a chapel or church was finished where the Fathers and Neophytes could hold Mass they would start building the Convento. The Convento was where the Fathers would live. Next would come workshops and the Monjerio. The Monjerio was where unmarried girls and women would live and be locked in at night. The Fathers didnt think that unmarried girls and women should live near single men. Eventually there would be enough buildings for four sides of a square or quadrangle. The Mission complexes werent perfect squares because the Fathers didnt have a way to measure distance other than walking off distances. Most Missions included a fountain. The fountain was used for washing, laundry, and water. The more fancy the fountain the more successful the Mission.
Mission San Antonio was laid out in the normal quadrangle shape. A small church was built in 1780 and a larger one started in 1810 and finished in 1813. The Mission bell was cast, or made, in Lima, Peru in 1799 and sent to the Mission by ship.
|Life at the Mission|
Life at the Mission was difficult for both the Fathers and the Natives. During the early years most Missions had trouble supporting themselves and depended on deliveries of supplies and food from New Spain and other Missions. Often the ships were unable to make the trip and the Missions members went hungry. It normally took several years before a Mission was able to plant enough food and raise enough cattle and other animals to be able to feed everyone who lived at the Mission.
Those that lived at the Mission went by a strict schedule. The Fathers were used to this type of lifestyle, but the neophytes were not. The structure of Mission life was one of the reasons many Native Californians tried to leave. A French explorer, Jean François de La Pérouse, visited Mission San Carlos is 1786 and wrote a detailed account of what he observed. Events at the Mission were signaled by the ringing of the Mission bells. Each day started around sunrise (about 6am). The Mission bells would ring to wake everyone and summon them to Mass and morning prayers. Prayer lasted for about an hour and then everyone would go to breakfast. Atole, a type of soup made from barley and other grains, would be served. Breakfast took about 45 minutes and then it was time for everyone to go to work.
The Fathers were responsible for running the Mission and instructing the new converts and children in the Catholic faith. Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or to help with the animals while women stayed at the Mission and worked on domestic chores such as weaving cloth and making clothes, boiling down fat to make soap and candles, and tending to the vegetable gardens. Children often helped at these chores around the Mission once their religious instruction was over. Depending on the particular industry at the Mission there also might be neophytes leatherworking, metalworking, wine making, and pressing olives for olive oil.
At noon the bells would ring again for everyone to gather for dinner, what we would call lunch. Lunch was normally pozole, another thick soup with beans and peas. After an afternoon break everyone returned to their work for another two to four hours depending on how much work there was to be done. A last bell would be rung to end the work day. Another serving of Atole would be served and the neophytes would be able to rest until it was time for bed (Margolin, Pg. 85). Women were usually expected to go to bed by 8pm and men by 9pm. Most of the Fathers allowed their neophytes to continue to hunt and gather additional foods and to cook some of their traditional dishes.
Living at the Mission was often difficult for new converts. They were used to working when work needed to be done and resting when they were tired. The Mission lifestyle was different. The Neophytes were the main source of labor for the Missions. It was their hard work along with the soldiers and Fathers that built the Missions and their outbuildings. Agriculture and ranching required constant tending to the crops and animals. Without this labor the Missions would not have been able to survive. Many neophytes missed the freedom of their tribal life and would try to leave the Mission. The Fathers wouldnt allow neophytes to leave and would send soldiers to search for them and bring them back. Runaways were usually punished for breaking the rules.
Records show that the Mission prospered and that by the end of the Mission period there were 12,000 sheep and 8,000 cattle owned by the Mission. The Mission was also well known for growing grapes to use for making wine as well as the neophytes basket making abilities. Unfortunately, European diseases took a heavy tool on the Native population and the population was continually shrinking.
|The End of the Mission Period|
| After the Mission was secularized, most of the neophytes left to look for jobs. The Mission was returned to the Catholic Church by President Lincoln in 1862 but the death of the last remaining priest in 1882 meant the end of the once strong Mission. The buildings were left with no one to take care of them and since the Mission was far away from roads that most people traveled and the Mission declined quickly. By 1883 the buildings were in ruins.
|Reconstruction and The Mission Today|
|The restoration of the church began in 1903 and continued until 1908. The 1906 earthquake on the nearby San Andreas fault made the restoration more difficult. The buildings were returned to the Catholic Church in 1928. A reconstruction of Mission buildings started in 1948 using authentic materials and construction techniques. The remote location and original surroundings makes a visit to the Mission very close to what it would have been during the Mission period.
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